Comply and demonstrate!
Nuclear power program deployment implies fulfillment of non-proliferation obligations the country takes upon itself by deciding to introduce nuclear energy into its energy mix.
Prevention of nuclear weapons proliferation is regulated by the nuclear non-proliferation regime that comprises a number of international political and legal mechanisms, safeguards agreements, export control regimes, physical protection and security measures promoting international peace and security. The most important one is the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) pursuant to which a country embarking on a nuclear power program shall conclude comprehensive safeguard agreement and associated protocols with the IAEA. This enables the IAEA to verify the fulfillment of the non-proliferation obligations not to divert nuclear material from peaceful uses.
The safeguards required by the NPT shall be applied on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within the territory of the State, under its jurisdiction, or carried out under its control anywhere.
To comply with the IAEA safeguards the state shall consider:
- how material flows through the facility in order to integrate safeguards measures into the overall facility planning,
- key measurement points for nuclear material accountability,
- equipment and design considerations regarding safeguards implementation,
- establish and maintain an effective State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) and etc.
The State’s safeguards infrastructure is based on legislative and regulatory system, providing for oversight and management of nuclear material and activities, as well as ensuring that the safeguards requirements are met. To implement IAEA safeguards the country shall cooperate with the IAEA and be able to demonstrate its compliance with the undertakings by timely provision of correct and complete reports and declarations to the IAEA and provision of access to locations and information necessary to achieve safeguards objectives.